Low Carbon Intensity Hydrogen - A Technoeconomic and Carbon Intensity Study - 2023
Traditionally hydrogen is generated from fossil feedstock and processes that emit significant amounts of CO2. Green and other colors of hydrogen hold significant potential and interest for decarbonization of sectors that have previously been difficult to decarbonize. This includes both existing applications (e.g., refining, feedstock for chemicals) as well as emerging applications (e.g., e-methanol, e-ammonia, e-SAF), as well as potential in direct use for carbon emission free combustion. Growing interest in low carbon intensity hydrogen has stemmed from mounting net zero pledges and decarbonization goals, and an increasing focus on the energy transition. Production options explored several global regions (US, China, Brazil, and Western Europe) and technologies covering thermochemical (biomass gasification), bio-methane reforming, carbon capture, electrolysis, and other advanced pathways from a technical, economic (cost of production model), and carbon intensity level—including breakeven values for emission reductions under carbon taxation scenarios.