This techno-economic report offers a review of chemistry, properties, technology, and development trends of Styrene and Ethylbenzene. The report provides process economics for Styrene and Ethylbenzene for several different global locations (USGC, Middle East and China) under a consistent first quarter 2023 price scenario. The report also provides a carbon intensity analysis, and a historical cost analysis.
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This report provides an overview of commercial and developing technologies for the by-product and on-purpose production of propylene, the second most used chemical in terms of global volumes after ethylene. By-product propylene technologies include naphtha cracking, conventional and enhanced fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of vacuum gas oil and atmospheric residue. This is followed by on-purpose propylene technologies that include residual grade propylene fractionation, propane dehydrogenation, metathesis, olefins catalytic conversion/cracking and methanol-based processes. The technoeconomic and carbon intensity analysis of the technologies in four regions (Middle East, United States, Western Europe, and China) are discussed, with coal-based processes included for China. Emerging or developing technologies that have the potential to decarbonize propylene production are also discussed. Cash margins for the commercial technologies by regions are correlated to the carbon intensities (scope 1 and 2), with a breakeven carbon cost analysis for fluidized bed catalytic crackers that are integrated with carbon capture systems. Global propylene capacity by producer is provided.
The report provides an extensive analysis of packaging design for recyclability, examining the mechanics and economics of blown film extrusion, cast film extrusion, bi-axially oriented film extrusion, and thermoforming across three key regions: the United States Gulf Coast (USGC), Western Europe, and China, referencing Q2 2023 pricing data. The report delves into the carbon intensity of these processes measured in tons of CO2 equivalent per ton of produced material. The report covers the fundamentals of the recycling value chain for both mechanical and chemical recycling, analyzing recyclable contents beyond plastic as well, and offering insights into recycling practices for aluminum, corrugated cardboard, mixed paper, and glass. The report examines the factors affecting the recyclability of plastic packaging, the obstacles to achieving effective recyclable packaging, touching on technological limitations, regulatory factors, and material availability, and discusses the dynamics of global harmonization and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) schemes. The report also analyses various polymer types and their suitability for recycling, building on the earlier discussions of material requirements and recycling challenges.
Public and private efforts for sustainability will soon result in fundamental changes to the production processes for materials used in construction of chemical and fuel plants, representing a gradual shift from major historical capital cost structures. This study examines the underlying materials associated with capital cost in the chemical and fuels industries and the coming effects of low-CI production methods on their costs, focusing on key materials such as steel, aluminum and concrete as well as other key factors for capital cost.
This TECH report provides an overview of Direct Air Capture (DAC) technology and economics, as well as market aspects and climate landscape in terms of key policies and project status. This includes DAC technology process descriptions, key challenges and limitations, advantages and disadvantages, and areas for cost-reducing innovation. The report primarily focuses on sorbent- and solvent-based DAC approaches, with a minor focus on other developmental DAC methods such as moisture/humidity swing adsorption, cryogenic, electrochemical/electro-swing adsorption, and membrane-based DAC technologies. In addition, this report discusses key players and technology holders/licensors of DAC technology and includes base-case cost of CO2 capture estimates for sorbent- and solvent-based DAC processes.
This report investigates the various commercial and developmental routes for the production of renewable ethylene. Technologies based on bio-ethanol, bio-naphtha, and bio-methanol are investigated for ethylene production, as well as sugar and glycerin-based routes directly to ethylene glycol. Pyrolysis oil from thermal conversion of plastic wastes has seen significant development for conversion into bio-naphtha feedstock, as well as gasification of biomass to produce methanol for ethylene production. Dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide and electrochemical production of ethylene are the new technologies covered in this edition of the report. Cost of production models, process descriptions, capacity analysis and implications for the conventional industry are included.
This report assesses Renewable DME production pathways in terms of their technical, economic, and carbon intensity aspects, in line with increasing pressure to decarbonize industrial boilers, off-grid power, medium- and heavy-duty transport, heating, and cooking applications. Key technologies covered at the cost of production level include gasification of forestry, agricultural, and municipal solid waste, reforming of glycerine, and biogas, and renewable power to DME. This report also presents a comparative analysis of the overall carbon intensity, considering scope 1, scope 2, and upstream scope 3 emissions across these fuel pathways.
Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a polyethylene with a molecular weight range of two to six million, compared with 300 000 to 500 000 for high density polyethylene. UHMWPE is a specialty polymer with performance that exceeds many types of polymers and steel, and as such is found in an increasing number of applications. This report covers the manufacturing process and fabrication methods to make UHMWPE products, as well as the cost of production for UHMWPE fabrication in different regions.
The report begins by defining polyolefins, followed by an overview of production technology pertinent to polyolefins. It then highlights recent business advancements for each polymer grade, along with providing a list of technology licensors and developers. The report will then delve into a comprehensive analysis of four pivotal recycling technologies — mechanical recycling, solvent-based purification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal treatment — that are either under development or being commercialized for the recycling and valorization of polyolefin waste. The report will discuss the distinct features and implications of each recycling process. A cost of production process economics analysis will be provided for mechanical recycling, solvent-based purification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal liquefaction. Profiles of key active companies within each respective technology will be profiled to shed light on current industry players and their contributions to polyolefin recycling. A Carbon Intensity analysis will be carried out for mechanical recycling, solvent-based purification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal treatment across the United States, Western Europe, and China.