Traditionally hydrogen is generated from fossil feedstock and processes that emit significant amounts of CO2. Green and other colors of hydrogen hold significant potential and interest for decarbonization of sectors that have previously been difficult to decarbonize. This includes both existing applications (e.g., refining, feedstock for chemicals) as well as emerging applications (e.g., e-methanol, e-ammonia, e-SAF), as well as potential in direct use for carbon emission free combustion. Growing interest in low carbon intensity hydrogen has stemmed from mounting net zero pledges and decarbonization goals, and an increasing focus on the energy transition. Production options explored several global regions (US, China, Brazil, and Western Europe) and technologies covering thermochemical (biomass gasification), bio-methane reforming, carbon capture, electrolysis, and other advanced pathways from a technical, economic (cost of production model), and carbon intensity level—including breakeven values for emission reductions under carbon taxation scenarios.
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This report will identify and evaluate practical technologies, processes, and products that can help fertilizer producers, distributors, and users meet sustainability goals and mandates. It will provide a road map to satisfy sustainability pressures on the fertilizer sector. Companies that have the right products and practices to succeed in an environment that features digital farming, regenerative agriculture, etc. will be identified. In addition, the report will describe the sustainability issues that are driving change in the competitive landscape of the fertilizer sector.
CO2 dosing can be highly beneficial to greenhouse crop yields. This white paper covers some of the environmentally-friendly ways that CO2 dosing can be combined with geothermal energy, solar power and sea water desalination to allow nutritious fresh food to be grown in arid coastal areas around the world. Carbon capture and re-use, from sources such as refineries and bio-renewable fuels facilities, is also highlighted to ensure the sustainability of this growing method.
Although hydrogen is the most abundant element on earth, it does not exist in nature in in its pure form and needs to be extracted from different (often very strong) molecules (e.g. water or hydrocarbons). This usually results in expensive (energy intensive) production economics. This report examines possible demand scenarios where hydrogen will be adopted as an energy carrier in various “new” applications and what it will take to actually produce this amount of hydrogen from an economic and market perspective. Conclusions are drawn on the realistic implementation of hydrogen as an energy carrier, especially in the transportation sector.
The revolution in battery technologies has caused a sharp acceleration in the demand growth for lithium and the trend is expected to continue. Producers and technology licensors have invested significantly in the development of newer lithium extraction technologies. Nexant provides a brief analysis of the emerging technologies and a more in-depth case study looking at Nemaska Lithium.
The importance of Africa cannot be undermined; it continues to offer perhaps the greatest growth opportunities with regards to fertilizer consumption but faces obstacles that hamper its potential. This white paper provides insight into the opportunities and challenges for developing Africa’s fertilizer market as well as the opportunities for GCC producers to invest in the fertilizer industry in African countries.
The electric vehicle revolution is a game-changer and one of the major trends affecting the mineral and energy industries. Enigmatic elements such as lithium have seen massive publicity as a result and investors have flocked to Australia and South America.
In order to power their economies and feed their growing populations, African nations must bring more of the continent's generous natural gas reserves out of the ground. They must balance incentives to turn some of that gas into fertilizers the agricultural sector so dearly needs.
This report provides a strategic assessment of the key elements of change expected in the petrochemical industry from the renewed acceptance and likely easing of sanctions in Iran. Before sanctions took hold and curtailed the development of the largely export-oriented industry, Iran had ambitious plans to develop a world scale petrochemical industry. When this development stalled other Middle Eastern players took advantage of the opportunity. However, a re-emergence of petrochemical momentum in Iran would undoubtedly have implications for the rest of the Middle East industry and how it develops. Nexant looks at the current state of the industry in Iran and evaluates how it will develop, assessing the real opportunities for investors and how this will impact the global markets.