For achieving “net-zero” emissions by 2050 for constraining global temperature rise to 1.5 to 2.0 degrees Celsius (°C), negligible or minimal (low) carbon hydrogen is receiving much attention. Different types of hydrogen are based on a color palette defined by environmental footprint and impact include grey, blue, green, brown, and others. Blue hydrogen projects are a major enabler for achieving “net-zero” emissions. Viable pathways for producing blue hydrogen mainly consist of steam methane reforming (SMR) and Autothermal Reforming (ATR). These are advanced commercial technologies and processes which must be integrated with carbon capture and sequestration where national and state level subsidies or incentives are utilized.
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This report investigates the technical, economic, and commercial aspects of the growing sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) industry. Cost of production estimate models are provided for 20 different technologies (across several regions) including various HVO, ATJ, thermochemical and other low carbon intensity technologies – credits are included in the analysis based upon carbon intensity. Capacity analysis, process descriptions, and strategic insights are also provided.
Carbon black production technologies, feedstock and process economics are discussed and evaluated. Detailed process economics for a selection of commercial ASTM N carbon black grades and specialty blacks such as acetylene and thermal blacks are provided. An overview of global and regional supply and demand of carbon black, as well as market applications by product grade is also included.
Renewable or green hydrogen is being developed as a working chemical for the renewable fuels and chemicals sector and as fuel for transportation and other applications. Production options explored for several global regions include thermochemical (biomass gasification), bio-methane reforming, electrolytic, and other, advanced pathways.
This report focuses on the approaches used by developers of Crude Oil to Chemicals (COTC) complexes currently being built, which is primarily through reconfiguration of existing bottom of the barrel and VGO conversion technologies to obtain petrochemical yields between 40 and 50 percent. The report discusses the different technology options, provides case studies for how they are implemented in projects operational or under construction, and contrasts the return on capital employed for COTC complexes versus “conventional” integrated refinery/petrochemical complexes. Lastly, the report discusses the impact of COTC projects on the refining and petrochemical markets.
Energy storage is growing in importance, and falling in cost, as solar PV, wind, and other renewables become a greater part of generation, and the grid becomes more sophisticated; batteries are a key type of solution, and flow batteries offer many advantages for large-scale and behind the meter storage. This report examines the global market trends, scenarios and opportunities for battery energy storage systems (BESS) in the next 5-10 years, as well as the current and projected technoeconomics of flow batteries in terms of levelized cost of storage and total investment cost.
RNG (renewable natural gas) is a mostly methane stream that is most commonly derived from biogas produced by anaerobic digestion or from landfill gas (LFG) by removing impurities such as CO2, H2S, and water vapor to achieve a purity similar to pipeline fossil natural gas. Other means of production include conventional catalytic methanation of waste CO2 with renewable hydrogen (made by water electrolysis with renewable electricity), and advanced electrochemical processes. RNG can be added to the natural gas pipeline, burned locally for heat and power, or fed to chemical synthesis.
Renewable diesel encompasses products from bio-based sources that can be substituted with diesel fuel. This report covers non FAME renewable diesel as produced: Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), HVO co-processing with petroleum, biomass pyrolysis diesel and other routes. Most renewable diesel technologies are relatively competitive with the price for renewable diesel in the United States.
The process technology and economics for making polymer grade propylene via enhanced FCC processes are assessed. Several enhanced FCC technologies are described. FCC unit economics are compared for the enhanced FCC technologies versus conventional FCC operations with ZSM-5 additive.
This report analyzes the shale gas resource potential of countries outside North America, and identifies the most likely sources of commercial production outside of North America over the next five years. This report also considers petrochemical production economics based on feedstocks currently being utilized and the potential impact of shale gas in countries presently using heavier feedstocks.