This report provides an overview of commercial and developing technologies for the by-product and on-purpose production of propylene, the second most used chemical in terms of global volumes after ethylene. By-product propylene technologies include naphtha cracking, conventional and enhanced fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of vacuum gas oil and atmospheric residue. This is followed by on-purpose propylene technologies that include residual grade propylene fractionation, propane dehydrogenation, metathesis, olefins catalytic conversion/cracking and methanol-based processes. The technoeconomic and carbon intensity analysis of the technologies in four regions (Middle East, United States, Western Europe, and China) are discussed, with coal-based processes included for China. Emerging or developing technologies that have the potential to decarbonize propylene production are also discussed. Cash margins for the commercial technologies by regions are correlated to the carbon intensities (scope 1 and 2), with a breakeven carbon cost analysis for fluidized bed catalytic crackers that are integrated with carbon capture systems. Global propylene capacity by producer is provided.
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This report provides an overview of commercial and developing technologies for the production of ethylene including decarbonization options for achieving low or net-zero emissions. The report includes a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) summary for the various decarbonization options. Technology and regional comparisons of cost of production and carbon intensity (scope 1 and 2) are presented, with breakeven carbon price analysis for representative crackers with carbon capture systems. Global ethylene capacity by producer is provided.
A study of power-to-X manufacturing for liquid transportation fuels, covering 5 major liquid transportation fuels, their process technology, economics, and carbon intensity within the context of power-to-X implementation. Includes economic and CI analysis of both manufacturing fuels and the cost of their use in various transportation applications.
This report covers the techno-economics of the industrial graphite electrode sector, a key enabling technology for the steel and aluminum industries as well as for a large variety of high temperature processes. Industrial graphite electrodes are vital for the decarbonization of the steel industry and critical for aluminum smelting, but are facing short-term pressures from the rapid retreat from coal in Chinese steel and competition for synthetic graphite from the battery sector. Technology and economics for major production processes for functional graphite electrodes are covered and used to support a strategic overview of the sector.
Traditionally hydrogen is generated from fossil feedstock and processes that emit significant amounts of CO2. In comparison, renewable or green hydrogen production results in materially lower emissions. Green hydrogen holds significant potential and interest for decarbonization of sectors that have previously been difficult to decarbonize. This includes both existing applications (e.g., refining, feedstock for chemicals) as well as emerging applications (e.g., e-methanol, e-ammonia, e-SAF), as well as potential in direct use for carbon emission free combustion. Growing interest in low carbon intensity hydrogen has stemmed from mounting net zero pledges and decarbonization goals, and an increasing focus on the energy transition. Production options explored several global regions and technologies covering thermochemical (biomass gasification), bio-methane reforming, electrolysis, and other advanced pathways from a technical, economic (cost of production model), and capacity level. A discussion of implications for the conventional technologies is also included.
This report is techno-economic analysis of available technologies for the production of pipeline quality renewable natural gas. Major technologies covered at the cost of production level include biogas upgrading (via anaerobic digestion or landfill gas collection), SNG, CO2 reforming, and microbial electrosynthesis. Carbon intensity of these routes is compared and capacity maps for key regions are also included.
For achieving “net-zero” emissions by 2050 for constraining global temperature rise to 1.5 to 2.0 degrees Celsius (°C), negligible or minimal (low) carbon hydrogen is receiving much attention. Different types of hydrogen are based on a color palette defined by environmental footprint and impact include grey, blue, green, brown, and others. Blue hydrogen projects are a major enabler for achieving “net-zero” emissions. Viable pathways for producing blue hydrogen mainly consist of steam methane reforming (SMR) and Autothermal Reforming (ATR). These are advanced commercial technologies and processes which must be integrated with carbon capture and sequestration where national and state level subsidies or incentives are utilized.
This report investigates the technical, economic, and commercial aspects of the growing sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) industry. Cost of production estimate models are provided for 20 different technologies (across several regions) including various HVO, ATJ, thermochemical and other low carbon intensity technologies – credits are included in the analysis based upon carbon intensity. Capacity analysis, process descriptions, and strategic insights are also provided.
Carbon black production technologies, feedstock and process economics are discussed and evaluated. Detailed process economics for a selection of commercial ASTM N carbon black grades and specialty blacks such as acetylene and thermal blacks are provided. An overview of global and regional supply and demand of carbon black, as well as market applications by product grade is also included.
Renewable or green hydrogen is being developed as a working chemical for the renewable fuels and chemicals sector and as fuel for transportation and other applications. Production options explored for several global regions include thermochemical (biomass gasification), bio-methane reforming, electrolytic, and other, advanced pathways.