Traditionally hydrogen is generated from fossil feedstock and processes that emit significant amounts of CO2. In comparison, renewable or green hydrogen production results in materially lower emissions. Green hydrogen holds significant potential and interest for decarbonization of sectors that have previously been difficult to decarbonize. This includes both existing applications (e.g., refining, feedstock for chemicals) as well as emerging applications (e.g., e-methanol, e-ammonia, e-SAF), as well as potential in direct use for carbon emission free combustion. Growing interest in low carbon intensity hydrogen has stemmed from mounting net zero pledges and decarbonization goals, and an increasing focus on the energy transition. Production options explored several global regions and technologies covering thermochemical (biomass gasification), bio-methane reforming, electrolysis, and other advanced pathways from a technical, economic (cost of production model), and capacity level. A discussion of implications for the conventional technologies is also included.
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This report provides an overview of the conventional and developing technological, economic and market aspects of water desalination for green hydrogen production. Cost estimates have been developed for the desalination of seawater to produce potable quality water via the three most common desalination technologies: multistage flash, multi effect distillation, and reverse osmosis. Market drivers, capacity additions, and key players in the desalination sector are also provided.
This report offers a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of newly commercial and emerging methane pyrolysis technologies for the production of “turquoise” hydrogen, which can be produced from both fossil and renewable methane sources and produces a carbon byproduct that can be sequestered or displace existing fossil products. Technologies including thermal plasma, uncatalyzed pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis, molten metal/molten salt, and non-thermal plasma are covered, and key players within each major route have their technical maturity and processes profiled. Process economics are also provided for thermal plasma processes. The report also includes an analysis of turquoise hydrogen in the context of other low-carbon hydrogen routes.
This report examines technical, commercial and economic aspects of producing BTX aromatics, particularly para-xylene, which is the principal co-monomer for PET used in the production of fibers and bottles. Major technologies covered at the cost of production level include catalytic fast pyrolysis, catalytic reforming of carbohydrates, cycloaddition of furans, catalytic conversion of iso-butanol to para-xylene, enhanced FCC of renewable feedstocks, renewable methanol-to-aromatics (MTA), rLPG-to-aromatics, bioethanol-to-aromatics (ETA).
This report is techno-economic analysis of available technologies for the production of pipeline quality renewable natural gas. Major technologies covered at the cost of production level include biogas upgrading (via anaerobic digestion or landfill gas collection), SNG, CO2 reforming, and microbial electrosynthesis. Carbon intensity of these routes is compared and capacity maps for key regions are also included.
This report is techno-economic overview of available major licensable technologies for the production of renewable diesel, SAF, renewable naphtha, and renewable LPG via hydrotreating of vegetable oils. Major technologies covered include UOP Ecofining, Haldor Topsoe Hydroflex, Axens Vegan, Neste NExBTL and Sulzer Bioflux. The report compares economics for maximum renewable diesel mode and maximum SAF modes with both virgin and UCO feedstocks. A review and analysis of planned capacities to 2030 are included as well.
This report is an extensive techno-economic overview of available renewable ammonia technologies in the context of the radical decarbonization required for the ammonia industry to reach COP25 goals. Major technologies are covered in a modular fashion including hydrogen provision, ammonia conversion, nitrogen capture, and carbon capture and sequestration. The report benchmarks blue ammonia against green ammonia ventures in terms of carbon intensity and economic competitiveness. Blue ammonia models cover ATR and SMR routes in detail, including flue gas capture and including potential sensitivities of costs for geological sequestration dependent on distance, injection well depth, and terrain. Green ammonia models cover both full-rate production and evaluate claims of cost competitiveness under intermittent production against a wide variety of plant-gate ammonia pricing and electricity pricing scenarios using an innovative probabilistic methodology.
This TECH report provides an overview of the technological, economical and market aspects of carbon capture and sequestration, as well as climate landscape in terms of key policies and project status.
This report investigates the various developments in Green Solvents, and profiles and provides an index (NESSI – NexantECA Solvent Sustainability Index) of major solvents. Analysis on recent industry trends and developments are also provided.
This report investigates the various developers producing biobased lactic acid and PLA. Relevant commercial technology processes and high-level economics are presented. Analysis on recent industry trends and developments are also provided.