This report provides an overview of commercial and developing technologies for the by-product and on-purpose production of propylene, the second most used chemical in terms of global volumes after ethylene. By-product propylene technologies include naphtha cracking, conventional and enhanced fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of vacuum gas oil and atmospheric residue. This is followed by on-purpose propylene technologies that include residual grade propylene fractionation, propane dehydrogenation, metathesis, olefins catalytic conversion/cracking and methanol-based processes. The technoeconomic and carbon intensity analysis of the technologies in four regions (Middle East, United States, Western Europe, and China) are discussed, with coal-based processes included for China. Emerging or developing technologies that have the potential to decarbonize propylene production are also discussed. Cash margins for the commercial technologies by regions are correlated to the carbon intensities (scope 1 and 2), with a breakeven carbon cost analysis for fluidized bed catalytic crackers that are integrated with carbon capture systems. Global propylene capacity by producer is provided.
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This TECH report provides an overview of Direct Air Capture (DAC) technology and economics, as well as market aspects and climate landscape in terms of key policies and project status. This includes DAC technology process descriptions, key challenges and limitations, advantages and disadvantages, and areas for cost-reducing innovation. The report primarily focuses on sorbent- and solvent-based DAC approaches, with a minor focus on other developmental DAC methods such as moisture/humidity swing adsorption, cryogenic, electrochemical/electro-swing adsorption, and membrane-based DAC technologies. In addition, this report discusses key players and technology holders/licensors of DAC technology and includes base-case cost of CO2 capture estimates for sorbent- and solvent-based DAC processes.
This report investigates the various commercial and developmental routes for the production of renewable ethylene. Technologies based on bio-ethanol, bio-naphtha, and bio-methanol are investigated for ethylene production, as well as sugar and glycerin-based routes directly to ethylene glycol. Pyrolysis oil from thermal conversion of plastic wastes has seen significant development for conversion into bio-naphtha feedstock, as well as gasification of biomass to produce methanol for ethylene production. Dry reforming of methane with carbon dioxide and electrochemical production of ethylene are the new technologies covered in this edition of the report. Cost of production models, process descriptions, capacity analysis and implications for the conventional industry are included.
This report assesses Renewable DME production pathways in terms of their technical, economic, and carbon intensity aspects, in line with increasing pressure to decarbonize industrial boilers, off-grid power, medium- and heavy-duty transport, heating, and cooking applications. Key technologies covered at the cost of production level include gasification of forestry, agricultural, and municipal solid waste, reforming of glycerine, and biogas, and renewable power to DME. This report also presents a comparative analysis of the overall carbon intensity, considering scope 1, scope 2, and upstream scope 3 emissions across these fuel pathways.
The report begins by defining polyolefins, followed by an overview of production technology pertinent to polyolefins. It then highlights recent business advancements for each polymer grade, along with providing a list of technology licensors and developers. The report will then delve into a comprehensive analysis of four pivotal recycling technologies — mechanical recycling, solvent-based purification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal treatment — that are either under development or being commercialized for the recycling and valorization of polyolefin waste. The report will discuss the distinct features and implications of each recycling process. A cost of production process economics analysis will be provided for mechanical recycling, solvent-based purification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal liquefaction. Profiles of key active companies within each respective technology will be profiled to shed light on current industry players and their contributions to polyolefin recycling. A Carbon Intensity analysis will be carried out for mechanical recycling, solvent-based purification, pyrolysis, and hydrothermal treatment across the United States, Western Europe, and China.
The purpose of this report is to analyze developing technologies for the production of biopolyols. Technical and economic aspects of producing biopolyols are explored in detail including cost of production models for key technologies. Production capacity developments, drivers for development, and strategies to increase biorenewable content are also explored.
This report provides an overview of commercial and developing technologies for the production of ethylene including decarbonization options for achieving low or net-zero emissions. The report includes a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) summary for the various decarbonization options. Technology and regional comparisons of cost of production and carbon intensity (scope 1 and 2) are presented, with breakeven carbon price analysis for representative crackers with carbon capture systems. Global ethylene capacity by producer is provided.
A study of power-to-X manufacturing for liquid transportation fuels, covering 5 major liquid transportation fuels, their process technology, economics, and carbon intensity within the context of power-to-X implementation. Includes economic and CI analysis of both manufacturing fuels and the cost of their use in various transportation applications.
The report provides a comprehensive review of the technology landscape for ammonia cracking, covering major licensors and emerging technologies. The economic analysis describes production costs for hydrogen from ammonia cracking in Western Europe and Japan (importers of low carbon ammonia in the hydrogen economy). A value chain analysis comparing the cost per delivered ton of hydrogen through direct transport of liquefied hydrogen versus hydrogen via ammonia cracking is presented for blue and green hydrogen / ammonia. A carbon intensity analysis covering scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions for the value chains described is also detailed, with commentary around the potential cost implications under the carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM).