The report provides an extensive analysis of packaging design for recyclability, examining the mechanics and economics of blown film extrusion, cast film extrusion, bi-axially oriented film extrusion, and thermoforming across three key regions: the United States Gulf Coast (USGC), Western Europe, and China, referencing Q2 2023 pricing data. The report delves into the carbon intensity of these processes measured in tons of CO2 equivalent per ton of produced material. The report covers the fundamentals of the recycling value chain for both mechanical and chemical recycling, analyzing recyclable contents beyond plastic as well, and offering insights into recycling practices for aluminum, corrugated cardboard, mixed paper, and glass. The report examines the factors affecting the recyclability of plastic packaging, the obstacles to achieving effective recyclable packaging, touching on technological limitations, regulatory factors, and material availability, and discusses the dynamics of global harmonization and Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) schemes. The report also analyses various polymer types and their suitability for recycling, building on the earlier discussions of material requirements and recycling challenges.
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This report assesses Renewable DME production pathways in terms of their technical, economic, and carbon intensity aspects, in line with increasing pressure to decarbonize industrial boilers, off-grid power, medium- and heavy-duty transport, heating, and cooking applications. Key technologies covered at the cost of production level include gasification of forestry, agricultural, and municipal solid waste, reforming of glycerine, and biogas, and renewable power to DME. This report also presents a comparative analysis of the overall carbon intensity, considering scope 1, scope 2, and upstream scope 3 emissions across these fuel pathways.
The report provides a comprehensive review of the technology landscape for ammonia cracking, covering major licensors and emerging technologies. The economic analysis describes production costs for hydrogen from ammonia cracking in Western Europe and Japan (importers of low carbon ammonia in the hydrogen economy). A value chain analysis comparing the cost per delivered ton of hydrogen through direct transport of liquefied hydrogen versus hydrogen via ammonia cracking is presented for blue and green hydrogen / ammonia. A carbon intensity analysis covering scope 1, 2 and 3 emissions for the value chains described is also detailed, with commentary around the potential cost implications under the carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM).
Traditionally hydrogen is generated from fossil feedstock and processes that emit significant amounts of CO2. In comparison, renewable or green hydrogen production results in materially lower emissions. Green hydrogen holds significant potential and interest for decarbonization of sectors that have previously been difficult to decarbonize. This includes both existing applications (e.g., refining, feedstock for chemicals) as well as emerging applications (e.g., e-methanol, e-ammonia, e-SAF), as well as potential in direct use for carbon emission free combustion. Growing interest in low carbon intensity hydrogen has stemmed from mounting net zero pledges and decarbonization goals, and an increasing focus on the energy transition. Production options explored several global regions and technologies covering thermochemical (biomass gasification), bio-methane reforming, electrolysis, and other advanced pathways from a technical, economic (cost of production model), and capacity level. A discussion of implications for the conventional technologies is also included.
This report offers a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of newly commercial and emerging methane pyrolysis technologies for the production of “turquoise” hydrogen, which can be produced from both fossil and renewable methane sources and produces a carbon byproduct that can be sequestered or displace existing fossil products. Technologies including thermal plasma, uncatalyzed pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis, molten metal/molten salt, and non-thermal plasma are covered, and key players within each major route have their technical maturity and processes profiled. Process economics are also provided for thermal plasma processes. The report also includes an analysis of turquoise hydrogen in the context of other low-carbon hydrogen routes.
This report is an extensive techno-economic overview of available renewable ammonia technologies in the context of the radical decarbonization required for the ammonia industry to reach COP25 goals. Major technologies are covered in a modular fashion including hydrogen provision, ammonia conversion, nitrogen capture, and carbon capture and sequestration. The report benchmarks blue ammonia against green ammonia ventures in terms of carbon intensity and economic competitiveness. Blue ammonia models cover ATR and SMR routes in detail, including flue gas capture and including potential sensitivities of costs for geological sequestration dependent on distance, injection well depth, and terrain. Green ammonia models cover both full-rate production and evaluate claims of cost competitiveness under intermittent production against a wide variety of plant-gate ammonia pricing and electricity pricing scenarios using an innovative probabilistic methodology.
For achieving “net-zero” emissions by 2050 for constraining global temperature rise to 1.5 to 2.0 degrees Celsius (°C), negligible or minimal (low) carbon hydrogen is receiving much attention. Different types of hydrogen are based on a color palette defined by environmental footprint and impact include grey, blue, green, brown, and others. Blue hydrogen projects are a major enabler for achieving “net-zero” emissions. Viable pathways for producing blue hydrogen mainly consist of steam methane reforming (SMR) and Autothermal Reforming (ATR). These are advanced commercial technologies and processes which must be integrated with carbon capture and sequestration where national and state level subsidies or incentives are utilized.
This techno-economic report provides a review of the technology, chemistry, economics, and market analysis for ammonium nitrate. Commercial technologies for the production of ammonium nitrate are discussed, as well as development trends. Cost of production estimates were developed for various neutralization technologies (utilizing ammonia and nitric acid) as well as production of calcium ammonium nitrate and urea ammonium nitrate, for plants located in the USGC, China, and Western Europe. An overview of the major applications for ammonium nitrate is provided, along with analysis of the global ammonium nitrate capacity and demand forecast.
This report provides an overview of the chlor alkali process which yield chlorine and sodium hydroxide, covering markets, technology and process economics.
This report provides a comprehensive analysis of the caprolactam industry. In addition to conventional caprolactam production from cyclohexane and phenol, this report also includes coverage of processes using non-conventional feedstocks.The analysis provides cost of production estimates for commercial and developing technologies for caprolactam production, within the USGC, Western Europe and China regions. Market analysis and an industry overview are also included to illustrate the commercial aspect of the industry.